In Janathan Kazol's essay, he explains the cost of an illiterate society. Three causes of an illiterate society are the parents, the teachers, and the government. Many American can read but with limited understanding. The cause of an illiterate society will not be those who cannot read and write, b.
It's easy to blame someone (or something) else for your problems. You don't control everything and the world always finds a way to make your life harder. But here's the problem with placing blame.